Nspeak  GRAMMATICA INGLESE DI BASE   del prof. Raffaele Nardella

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VERBO ESSERE - TO BE

 

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Introduzione

Gli argomenti affrontati in questa pagina della Grammatica Inglese sono:

  • Formazione del Verbo Essere

  • Present Simple

  • Past Simple

  • Past Participle

  • Short Answers

Al termine della presentazione grammaticale è presente la sezione Laboratorio di Inglese Online dove poter svolgere esercizi interattivi. La lezione è anche disponibile sull'Ebook di Grammatica.

VERBO ESSERE - TO BE

 

To Be traduce in inglese il verbo italiano "Essere".

Tuttavia vi sono dei casi in cui le frasi con il verbo To Be corrispondono ad espressioni italiane con  "Avere" ovvero quando il verbo "Avere" non viene utilizzato per indicare possesso bensì uno stato o una condizione.


Eccone alcuni esempi:
Ho 37 anni. = I am 37 (years old)
Ho fame  = I am hungry
Ho freddo = I am cold

Ho ragione = I am right

Ho sonno= I am sleepy

Ho paura = I am scared

Ho fretta = I am in a hurry

 

FORMAZIONE DEL VERBO ESSERE

 

AFFERMATIVA:

Soggetto + TO BE + complemento

Es: Mark is American.

 

NEGATIVA:

Soggetto + TO BE + NOT + complemento

Es: Mark is not American.

 

INTERROGATIVA:

TO BE + soggetto + complemento

Es: Is Mark American?

 

INTERROGATIVA-NEGATIVA:

Forma contratta di  BE/ NOT + soggetto + complemento

Es: Isn’t Mark American?

 

 

PRESENTE SEMPLICE (SIMPLE PRESENT)

 

Nella seguente tabella ci sono la forma estesa (EST) e quella contratta (CON)  del Presente Semplice del verbo essere:

 

FORME

AFFER

NEGATIVA INTERROG

INTERROG-NEGATIVA

EST

I am

 

You are

 

He is

 

She is

 

It is

 

We are

 

You are

 

They are

 

I am not

 

You are not

 

He is not

 

She is not

 

It is not

 

We are not

 

You are not

 

They are not

 

Am I …?

 

Are you…?

 

Is he…?

 

Is she…?

 

Is it…?

 

Are we...?

 

Are you...?

 

Are they...?

Am I not…?

 

Are you not..?

 

Is he not…?

 

Is she not…?

 

Is it not…?

 

Are we not...?

 

Are you not...?

 

Are they not..?

 

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FORME

AFFER

NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA

INTERROGATIVA-NEGATIVA

CON

I'm

 

You're

 

He's

 

She's

 

It's

 

We're

 

You're

 

They're

I'm not

 

You aren't

 

He isn't

 

She isn't

 

It isn't

 

We aren't

 

You aren't

 

They aren't

La forma interrogativa non ha la forma contratta

Aren't I…?*

 

Aren't you..?

 

Isn't he…?

 

Isn't she…?

 

Isn't it…?

 

Aren't we...?

 

Aren't you...?

 

Aren't they..?

 

La forma estesa viene usata prevalentemente nella lingua scritta. *La forma contratta di Am I not...? usata nel parlato è Aren't I...?

 

 

PASSATO SEMPLICE (SIMPLE PAST)

 

Nella seguente tabella ci sono la forma estesa (EST) e quella contratta (CON) del Passato Semplice del verbo essere:

 

FORME

AFFERMATIVA

NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA

INTERROGATIVA-NEGATIVA

EST

I was

 

You were

 

He was

 

She was

 

It was

 

We were

 

You were

 

They were

 

I was not

 

You were not

 

He was not

 

She was not

 

It was not

 

We were not

 

You were not

 

They were not

 

Was I...?

 

Were you...?

 

Was he...?

 

Was she...?

 

Was it...?

 

Were we...?

 

Were you...?

 

Were they...?

Was I not...?

 

Were you not...?

 

Was he not...?

 

Was she not...?

 

Was it not...?

 

Were we not...?

 

Were you not...?

 

Were they not...?

 

CON

La forma affermativa non ha contrazioni

I wasn't

 

You weren't

 

He wasn't

 

She wasn't

 

It wasn't

 

We weren't

 

You weren't

 

They weren't

La forma interrogativa non ha contrazioni

Wasn't I...?

 

Weren't you...?

 

Wasn't he...?

 

Wasn't she...?

 

Wasn't it...?

 

Weren't we...?

 

Weren't you...?

 

Weren't they...?

 

 

RISPOSTE BREVI (SHORT ANSWERS)

 

Nelle risposte brevi, dopo "Yes" o "No" si usa sempre il pronome personale; la forma contratta si usa solo nelle negazioni.

 

-Are you American?    -Yes, I am./No, I'm not. = Sei Americano? Sì/No

-Is Sheila nice?    -Yes, she is./No, she isn't. = E' carina/simpatica Sheila? Sì/No

-Are you tired?   -Yes, we are./No, we aren't. = Siete stanchi? Sì/No

-Were you in London last year?    -Yes, I was./No, I wasn't. = Sei stato a Londra l'anno scorso? Sì/No

-Was Rudy nice?   -Yes, he was./No, he wasn't. = E' stato carino/simpatico Rudy? Sì/No

-Were you tired?   -Yes, we were./No, we weren't. = Eravate stanchi? Sì/No

 

 

PARTICIPIO PASSATO (PAST PARTICIPLE)

 

Il Participio Passato (Past Participle) del verbo essere è been (“stato”).

 

ES: I have been to London this week = Sono stato a Londra questa settimana.


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