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Grammatica Inglese di Base
del prof. Raffaele Nardella

Verbo Essere (TO BE)

Introduzione

L'argomento grammaticale affrontato in questa pagina è il Verbo Essere (in inglese TO BE), in particolare di questo verbo:

- come si costruisce una frase affermativa, negativa, interrogativa e interrogativa-negativa

- il presente semplice (Simple Present)

- il passato semplice (Simple Past)

- le risposte brevi (Short Answers)

- il participio passato (Past Participle)

- alcune espressioni idiomatiche

Al termine della lezione grammaticale è presente la sezione Laboratorio di Inglese Online dove svolgere gli esercizi interattivi.


Forme Affermativa, Negativa e Interrogativa

AFFERMATIVA:Soggetto + TO BE
Esempio (Present): Mark is American(Mark è americano)
Esempio (Past): They were here (Loro sono stati qui)
NEGATIVA:Soggetto + TO BE + NOT
Esempio (Present): Mark is not American (Mark non è americano)
Esempio (Past): They were not here (Non sono stati qui)
INTERROGATIVA:TO BE + Soggetto
Esempio (Present): Is Mark American? (Mark è americano?)
Esempio (Past): Were they here? (Sono stati qui?)
INTERROGATIVA-NEGATIVA:TO BE + NOT + Soggetto
Esempio (Present): Isn't Mark American? (Mark non è americano?)
Esempio (Past): Weren't they here? (Non sono stati qui?)

S. Present: affermativa

Soggetto TO BE Contratta
I am I'm
you are you're
he is he's
she is she's
it is it's
we are we're
you are you're
they are they're

S. Present: negativa

Sogg TO BE NOT Contratta
I am not I'm not
you are not you aren't
he is not he isn't
she is not she isn't
it is not it isn't
we are not we aren't
you are not you aren't
they are not they aren't

Test Gratuito

Test Gratuito
Test gratuito


S. Present: interrogativa

TO BE Soggetto
am I
are you
is he
is she
is it
are we
are you
are they

S. Present: interrogativa-negativa

TO BE Sogg NOT Contratta
am I not aren't I
are you not aren't you
is he not isn't he
is she not isn't she
is it not isn't it
are we not aren't we
are you not aren't you
are they not aren't they

esamidinglese.com

Esamidinglese.com

 

 

Le forme estese sono usate prevalentemente nella lingua scritta e hanno un'accezione più formale rispetto alle forme contratte, che sono usate nella lingua parlata corrente. La forma contratta della prima persona singolare della forma interrogativa-negativa aren't I...? è usata nella lingua parlata.


S. Past: affermativa

Soggetto TO BE
I was
you were
he was
she was
it was
we were
you were
they were

S. Past: negativa

Sogg TO BE NOT Contratta
I was not I wasn't
you were not you weren't
he was not he wasn't
she was not she wasn't
it was not it wasn't
we were not we weren't
you were not you weren't
they were not they weren't

S. Past: interrogativa

TO BE Soggetto
was I
were you
was he
was she
was it
were we
were you
were they


S. Past: interrogativa-negativa

TO BE Sogg NOT Contratta
was I not wasn't I
were you not weren't you
was he not wasn't he
was she not wasn't she
was it not wasn't it
were we not weren't we
were you not weren't you
were they not weren't they

Risposte Brevi + Participio Passato

Nelle risposte brevi (Short Answers) dopo YES o NO si usa sempre il pronome personale e nelle negazioni si usa la forma contratta.
Esempi:

 

- Are you English? (Sei inglese?)   - Yes, I am. / No, I'm not. ( / No)

- Is Sheila nice? (E' carina/simpatica Sheila?)   - Yes, she is. / No, she isn't. ( / No)

- Are you tired? (Siete stanchi?)   - Yes, we are./ No, we aren't. ( / No)

- Were you in London last year? (Sei stato a Londra l'anno scorso?)  - Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't. ( / No)

- Was Rudy at home? (Era a casa Rudy?)   - Yes, he was. / No, he wasn't. ( / No)

- Were you tired? (Eravate stanchi?)   - Yes, we were./ No, we weren't. ( / No)

 

Il Participio Passato (Past Participle) del verbo essere è been (“stato”).

Esempio: I have been to London this week (Sono stato a Londra questa settimana).


Espressioni Idiomatiche

Il verbo To Be traduce in inglese il verbo italiano "Essere", tuttavia vi sono dei casi in cui le frasi con il verbo To Be corrispondono ad espressioni italiane con il verbo "Avere" ovvero quando il verbo "Avere" non viene utilizzato per indicare possesso bensì uno stato o una condizione.
Esempi:
Ho 37 anni. = I am 37 (years old)
Ho fame = I am hungry
Ho freddo = I am cold
Ho caldo = I am hot / warm
Ho ragione = I am right
Ho torto = I am wrong
Ho sonno = I am sleepy
Ho paura = I am scared
Ho fretta = I am in a hurry

Laboratorio Online Interattivo

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