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Present Perfect

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Forma Affermativa


Present Perfect
Present Simple TO HAVE + Past Participle del Verbo*

*Il Past Participle (Participio Passato) dei verbi si forma come il Past Simple (infinito senza TO + ed); consultare i paradigmi dei verbi irregolari all'interno della grammatica

SOGGETTO + Present Perfect + COMPLEMENTI


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TO WORK Esempi
I have worked
I've worked
I've worked hard this week = Ho lavorato molto questa settimana
you have worked
you'
ve worked
You've worked all night long = Hai lavorato tutta la notte
he has worked
he's worked
Bob's worked in London = Bob ha lavorato a Londra
she has worked
she'
s worked
She's worked as a teacher = Ha lavorato come insegnante
it has worked
it'
s worked
It's worked very well = Ha funzionato molto bene
we have worked
we'
ve worked
We've worked at home= Abbiamo lavorato a casa
you have worked
you'
ve worked
You've worked together = Avete lavorato insieme
they have worked
they'
ve worked
They've worked here today = Hanno lavorato qui oggi



Forma Negativa

 

SOGGETTO + HAVEN'T* / HASN'T* (HAVE NOT / HAS NOT) + PARTICIPIO PASSATO del VERBO + COMPLEMENTI


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TO WORK Esempi
I haven't worked I haven't worked hard this week = Non ho lavorato molto questa settimana
you haven't worked You haven't worked all night long = Non hai lavorato tutta la notte
he hasn't worked Bob hasn't worked in London = Bob non ha lavorato a Londra
she hasn't worked She hasn't worked as a teacher = Non ha lavorato come insegnante
it  hasn't worked It hasn't worked very well = Non ha funzionato molto bene
we haven't worked We haven't worked at home = Non abbiamo lavorato a casa
you haven't worked You haven't worked together = Non avete lavorato insieme
they haven't worked They haven't worked here today = Non hanno lavorato qui oggi

 

*"HAVEN'T / HASN'T" sono le forme contratte di "HAVE NOT" e "HAS NOT" e sono quelle più usate.


Forma Interrogativa

 

HAVE / HAS + SOGGETTO + PARTICIPIO PASSATO del VERBO + COMPLEMENTI

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TO WORK Esempi
Have I worked Have I worked hard this week? = Ho lavorato molto questa settimana?
Have you worked Have you worked all night long? = Hai lavorato tutta la notte?
Has he worked Has Bob ever worked in London? = Bob ha mai lavorato a Londra?
Has she worked Has she worked as a teacher? = Ha lavorato come insegnante?
Has it worked Has it worked well? = Ha funzionato bene?
Have we worked Have we worked for nothing? = Abbiamo lavorato per niente?
Have you worked Have you worked together? = Avete lavorato insieme?
Have they worked Have they worked here today? = Hanno lavorato qui oggi?

Forma Interrogativa-Negativa

 

HAVEN'T / HASN'T + SOGGETTO + PARTICIPIO PASSATO del VERBO + COMPLEMENTI

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TO WORK Esempi
Haven't I worked Haven't I worked hard this week? = Non ho lavorato molto questa settimana?
Haven't you worked Haven't you worked all night long? = Non hai lavorato tutta la notte?
Hasn't he worked Hasn't Bob worked in London this summer? = Bob non ha lavorato a Londra questa estate?
Hasn't she worked Hasn't she worked as a teacher? = Non ha lavorato come insegnante?
Hasn't it worked Hasn't it worked well? = Non ha funzionato bene?
Haven't we worked Haven't we worked for you? = Non abbiamo lavorato per te?
Haven't you worked Haven't you worked together? = Non avete lavorato insieme?
Haven't they worked Haven't they worked here today? = Non hanno lavorato qui oggi?

Short Answers (Risposte Brevi)

 

Nelle risposte brevi, dopo "Yes" o "No" si usa sempre il pronome personale e l'ausiliare; nelle negazioni si usa solo la forma contratta.

Have you worked all night long? Yes, I have/No, I haven't = Hai lavorato tutta la notte? Sì/No

Has Bob ever worked in London? Yes, he has/No, he hasn't = Bob ha mai lavorato a Londra? Sì/No


Uso del Past Simple

 

 

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- Anche con i verbi intransitivi

Es: She has arrived = E' arrivata

 

- Azioni passate avvenute in un periodo di tempo non completamente trascorso definito con espressioni di tempo come today, this morning/week/month/year/, this summer, so far/up to now (finora)

Es: She has arrived this morning = E' arrivata stamattina (è ancora mattina)

 

- Azioni passate avvenute in un periodo di tempo non specificato e il cui risultato arriva al presente

Es: Have you brought the umbrella? No, I haven't = Hai portato l'ombrello? No

 

- Con for (da) e since (da/da quando); for introduce la durata dell'azione e risponde alla domanda "da quanto tempo"; since indica il momento d'inizio dell'azione e risponde alla domanda "da quando"

Es: I have lived here for 5 years= Vivo qui da 5 anni.

     I have lived here since 2000 = Vivo qui dal 2000.

 

- Con altre espressioni di tempo come: just (appena), always (sempre), often (spesso), never (mai - nelle negative), ever (mai - nelle interrogative), already (già), yet (già - nelle interrogative/ ancora - nelle negative), recently (recentemente), lately (ultimamente), many/several/two/three times (molte/tante/2/3 volte), before (prima)

Es: Has Bob ever worked in London? = Bob ha mai lavorato a Londra?

     I've just closed the door = Ho appena chiuso la porta

     She's always played football = Ha sempre giocato a calcio

     Have you seen Mark recently? = Hai visto Mark recentemente?

     I've already had breakfast = Ho già fatto colazione

     I haven't had breakfast yet = Non ho ancora fatto colazione


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