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Past Perfect

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Forma Affermativa


Past Perfect
Past Simple TO HAVE + Past Participle del Verbo*

*Il Past Participle (Participio Passato) dei verbi si forma come il Past Simple (infinito senza TO + ed); consultare i paradigmi dei verbi irregolari all'interno della grammatica

SOGGETTO + Past Perfect + COMPLEMENTI


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TO WORK Esempi
I had worked
I'd* worked
I had worked hard that week = Avevo lavorato molto quella settimana
you had worked
you'
d worked
You had worked all night long = Avevi lavorato tutta la notte
he had worked
he'd worked
Bob had worked in London = Bob aveva lavorato a Londra
she had worked
she'd
worked
She had worked as a teacher = Aveva lavorato come insegnante
it had worked
it'd
worked
It had worked very well = Aveva funzionato molto bene
we had worked
we'd
worked
We had worked at home= Avevamo lavorato a casa
you had worked
you'
d worked
You had worked together = Avevate lavorato insieme
they had worked
they'
d worked
They had worked here = Avevano lavorato qui oggi

*La forma contratta 'D è quella più usata nel linguaggio colloquiale.




Forma Negativa

 

SOGGETTO + HADN'T* (HAD NOT) + PARTICIPIO PASSATO del VERBO + COMPLEMENTI


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TO WORK Esempi
I hadn't worked I hadn't worked hard that week = Non avevo lavorato molto quella settimana
you hadn't worked You hadn't worked all night long = Non avevi lavorato tutta la notte
he hadn't worked Bob hadn't worked in London = Bob non aveva lavorato a Londra
she hadn't worked She hadn't worked as a teacher = Non aveva lavorato come insegnante
it  hadn't worked It hadn't worked very well = Non aveva funzionato molto bene
we hadn't worked We hadn't worked at home = Non avevamo lavorato a casa
you hadn't worked You hadn't worked together = Non avevate lavorato insieme
they hadn't worked They hadn't worked here = Non avevano lavorato qui oggi

*"HADN'T   è la forma contratta di "HAD NOT" ed è quella più usata.


Forma Interrogativa

 

HAD + SOGGETTO + PARTICIPIO PASSATO del VERBO + COMPLEMENTI

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TO WORK Esempi
Had I worked Had I worked hard that week? = Avevo lavorato molto quella settimana?
Had you worked Had you worked all night long? = Avevi lavorato tutta la notte?
Had he worked Had Bob worked in London? = Bob aveva mai lavorato a Londra?
Had she worked Had she worked as a teacher? = Aveva lavorato come insegnante?
Had it worked Had it worked well? = Aveva funzionato bene?
Had we worked Had we worked for nothing? = Avevamo lavorato per niente?
Had you worked Had you worked together? = Avevate lavorato insieme?
Had they worked Had they worked here? = Avevano lavorato qui?

Forma Interrogativa-Negativa

 

HADN'T+ SOGGETTO + PARTICIPIO PASSATO del VERBO + COMPLEMENTI

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TO WORK Esempi
Hadn't I worked Hadn't I worked hard that week? = Non ho lavorato molto quella settimana?
Hadn't you worked Hadn't you worked all night long? = Non avevi lavorato tutta la notte?
Hadn't he worked Hadn't Bob worked in London? = Bob non aveva lavorato a Londra?
Hadn't she worked Hadn't she worked as a teacher? = Non aveva lavorato come insegnante?
Hadn't it worked Hadn't it worked well? = Non aveva funzionato bene?
Hadn't we worked Hadn't we worked for you? = Non avevamo lavorato per te?
Hadn't you worked Hadn't you worked together? = Non avevate lavorato insieme?
Hadn't they worked Hadn't they worked here? = Non avevano lavorato qui?

Short Answers (Risposte Brevi)

 

 

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Nelle risposte brevi, dopo "Yes" o "No" si usa sempre il pronome personale e l'ausiliare; nelle negazioni si usa solo la forma contratta.

Had you worked all night long? Yes, I had/No, I hadn't = Avevi lavorato tutta la notte? Sì/No

Had Bob ever worked in London? Yes, he had/No, he hadn't = Bob aveva mai lavorato a Londra? Sì/No


Uso del Past Simple

 

 

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- Anche con i verbi intransitivi

Es: She had arrived = Era arrivata.

 

- Azioni avvenute prima di altre già conclusesi nel passato

Es: When they got to the airport the plane had already taken off = Quando arrivarono all'aeroporto l'aereo era già decollato.


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